Psychiatric Service Dogs | What They Do & How They Help

Dogs are magnificent creatures. Cute, cuddly, and full of energy, some 400 million dogs are kept as pets by people around the world. For millennia, these special animals have served as loyal companions and as important members of our human families.

While dogs are fun-loving and a joy to be around, their innate intelligence and ability to be trained also means they can play vital support roles for humans with disabilities. One of those special roles is that of a psychiatric service dog (PSD). Providing support, comfort, and protection, psychiatric service dogs can be trained to carry out important tasks for individuals with mental health issues.

This guide provides information about what a psychiatric service dog is, what they do, and how you can go about obtaining one.

What Is a Psychiatric Service Dog?

Like many service dogs, PSDs are trained to help an individual carry out certain tasks while protecting them from harm. More specifically, psychiatric service dogs are designed for people who have special psychiatric conditions and who require help with their daily lives.

Psychiatric Service Dogs can assist individuals with a range of mental health conditions, including but not limited to:

  • Anxiety Disorders: Including Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Panic Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder, and Specific Phobias.
  • Mood Disorders: Including Depression, Bipolar Disorder, and Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD).
  • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): A mental health condition that can develop after exposure to a traumatic event.
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): A mental health condition characterized by unwanted and intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviors or mental acts (compulsions).
  • Schizophrenia: A serious mental illness characterized by a loss of contact with reality.
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A neurodevelopmental disorder that affects communication, social interaction, and behavior.
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness.
  • Dissociative Disorders: Including Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) and Depersonalization-Derealization Disorder (DDD).

While each handler’s needs are different, the primary role of a psychiatric dog is to provide comfort, protection, and assistance. Psychiatric service dogs can help their handler perform everyday tasks that might otherwise be challenging due to their mental health condition.

PSDs are also trained to handle crowded public environments, such as buses or trains, and to deal with emergency situations.

Difference Between Therapy Dogs, Emotional Support Animals, and Service Dogs

While psychiatric service dogs may appear like any other dog that is in a supportive role, some key differences are worth noting.

Therapy Dog

Therapy dogs are not specially trained to perform special tasks but rather to provide therapeutic assistance. However, these dogs may be registered with a therapy dog program, where they will be tested and approved for their temperament.

Therapy dogs are typically found in care homes, hospitals, schools, or rehab facilities where their presence can provide comfort for those around them. Most therapy dog owners are volunteers, and their dogs do not have special public access rights.

Emotional Support Animal

Like therapy dogs, emotional support animals are primarily used to comfort their handlers simply through their presence. What differentiates them from therapy dogs, though, is that they will work with one handler, rather than with a group of people in a care home, for instance. While these dogs can be useful for conditions like anxiety, their role is more like a pet than a service dog.

That said, emotional support animals perform a very vital role by providing a continuous sense of comfort and security. These kinds of dogs can also be useful for individuals with disabilities or for emotional support in the wake of bereavement or trauma.

Service Dog

On the other hand, service dogs (such as psychiatric service dogs) are specially trained for particular tasks and roles. Their handlers must also have a disability, whether it’s physical, mental, or emotional.

Service dogs are also trained to deal with scenarios that might arise because of their owner’s impairment. Whether it’s seeking help or supporting their handler if they become unwell, these dogs perform necessary tasks and are granted special access rights in public.

What Do Psychiatric Service Dogs Do?

Psychiatric service dogs are trained to carry out a wide range of tasks. Not only can they be trained to tune in to their handler’s state of mind, but they can learn specific commands that are vital in emergency situations.

These include things like calming their handler, fetching an item, or alerting them to danger. Below are a few of the key tasks that psychiatric service dogs perform.

Guide a Disoriented Handler

Certain mental conditions can cause an individual to become confused or enter a dissociative state. In such cases, they may get lost or find themselves unable to find their way. A PSD can guide their owner back to their house as they are trained to backtrack and use their scent to lead the way.

The dog may also be trained to lead the handler to specific locations using special commands such as ‘home’ or ‘work.’

Bring Medication

Individuals who fall or have an episode such as a panic attack may hyperventilate or otherwise be unable to get their medication. In these cases, psychiatric service dogs are trained to fetch medication for their owner through special commands.

Fetch a Phone or Device

Like medication, PSDs can retrieve the phone for someone who has fallen or is having an anxiety attack. Whether it’s through a command or a gesture, these dogs can ensure their handler has access to a doctor or therapist in emergency situations.

Get Help

Psychiatric service dogs are also incredibly useful during crisis situations when their handler is unable to call out for help. If they’ve fallen or are having an anxious episode, for example, a PSD can lead first responders to their owner, even if they’re hidden from view.

Provide Tactile Stimulation

It is no secret that dogs have remarkable senses. This means they can sense the slightest changes in their handler’s hormone levels or state of mind, almost before they even recognize it themselves. If a person is having an anxious episode, PSDs are trained to provide tactile stimulation such as licking to calm them down.

They can also perform ‘deep pressure therapy’ by applying their whole body onto the handler. The warmth and pressure in deep pressure therapy acts like a weighted blanket to offer comfort.

Create a Signal

Individuals suffering from anxiety or depression may take medications that are heavily sedating. If there is an emergency that the individual isn’t aware of — such as in the case of a fire — a psychiatric service dog is trained to signal them repeatedly until they respond. This could involve licking, tugging at their sleeve, or barking incessantly.

Interrupt & Redirect

As PSDs can recognize the key signs of their handler’s psychiatric issues, they are also able to interrupt dysfunctional behaviors and redirect attention. For example, someone with OCD may begin a habit of picking the skin on their arm repeatedly.

The dog, having sensed this, can be trained to fetch a special item like a dog brush or a remote control. This helps redirect the handler’s anxious energy into something more productive like brushing the dog or watching TV.

Other examples of interruption can occur if the handler is having a post-traumatic flashback. The dog can sense the change in their handler’s state and be trained to paw at their arm to snap them out of it.

Block Others

People with social anxiety or autism can find it difficult to be near people in public situations. A psychiatric service dog can be trained to protect their owner from other people by placing their body close to him or her. Alternatively, placing their bodies strategically can block other people from their handlers.

Prevent Choking

Psychiatric service dogs can also be specially trained to deal with emergencies such as choking. If someone is lying on the ground and repeatedly vomiting, the dog can be trained to clear the handler’s airway and fetch them a water bottle.

Identify Hallucinations

Individuals who experience hallucinations will often not know whether or not what they see is real. Psychiatric service dogs can help by being trained to greet any person that enters the room.

If the handler instructs the dog to greet the imagined person and the dog finds nothing, the owner will then know that they are experiencing a hallucination.

Search a Room

People with anxiety or PTSD may fear entering a room out of fear of someone being there. Psychiatric service dogs are trained to search a room thoroughly and then bark when they find someone.

If the dog returns without barking, the handler can feel safe entering the room. This is particularly useful in public areas or in spaces where the room is supposed to be vacant.

Assist with Balance

Psychiatric service dogs can also help a handler if they become unsteady on their feet due to strong medication or a condition that affects their balance. If they find it difficult to walk because they are drowsy or confused, these dogs are trained to act as a lean-to while they guide their owner back to a safe place.

Wake Someone Up

PSDs are also useful in instances when a handler requires reviving. For example, if their handler passes out after an anxiety attack or from an overdose of medication, a psychiatric service dog can try to wake them by barking, pawing, or licking their face.

Rights of Psychiatric Service Dogs

Individuals with PSDs are granted special permissions so that they have the freedom to access public services without prejudice. Below are the main public rights granted to individuals with psychiatric service dogs:

  • Owners of a PSD have access to nearly any public areas where pets are normally not allowed. This includes grocery stores, restaurants, taxi cabs, theaters, buses, government buildings, medical offices, parks, churches, airplanes, and more.
  • PSDs can access public areas without incurring a pet fee. Airlines, landlords, or hotels cannot charge an owner extra for bringing their dog. This is highly beneficial to the handler as pet fees can generally be quite high.
  • In the case of accommodation, landlords must make reasonable accommodations for a service dog, even if the apartment, house, or dorm normally doesn’t allow pets.
  • Public entities cannot seat handlers with PSDs away from regular patrons. They must be treated equally to all other guests.

These federally protected rights can be reassuring for individuals with psychiatric service dogs as they can access services while still having the comfort and protection of their animal.

How to Get a Psychiatric Service Dog

A psychiatric service dog might be the perfect solution if you have a mental health issue and require daily assistance. However, getting set up with a PSD isn’t always a straightforward process as certain criteria need to be met.

Primarily, prospective PSD owners must have a mental disability that affects their day-to-day lives, and they must be able to demonstrate how the service dog would support this disability.

Other criteria must be met before getting a psychiatric service dog. These include:

  • Being able to actively participate in the dog’s training
  • Having the capacity to give commands and care for the dog
  • Being able to provide a stable home environment
  • Having adequate finances for care, maintenance, and training
  • Receiving a recommendation letter from your healthcare provider

Before you consider getting a psychiatric service dog, it’s worth reviewing the criteria above and assessing your financial situation. Training for PSDs can cost between thirty to forty thousand dollars, and you’ll need to budget in costs for food, maintenance, and vet visits, too. While a service dog is an effective aid for supporting mental health conditions, it is a big commitment that should be carefully considered.

Thankfully, training your own PSD through an online course, like the one we offer at US Service Animals, can cost you up to 95% less than in-person training. And since the course has been designed by AKC-certified trainers with more than 25 years of experience, it’s extremely effective and designed to be easy for even novice trainers to follow.

Applying for a Psychiatric Service Dog

If you are certain that a psychiatric service dog is for you, contact your medical doctor or get in touch with US Service Animals (USSA) to be connected with a doctor directly.

Either way, it is advisable to obtain a letter of recommendation from a medical provider stating the reasons why a PSD would be a beneficial treatment option for your condition.

If you require further information about this process, it’s worth contacting USSA as they understand the legal process and the requirements for obtaining one of these special animals.

Training a Psychiatric Service Dog

Training a Psychiatric Service Dog is a complex and intensive process that requires significant time, patience, and commitment from both the handler and the trainer. The process typically involves the following steps:

  • Assessment: Before training can begin, a thorough assessment of the handler’s needs and abilities must be performed to determine what tasks the dog will need to be trained to perform. This can include an evaluation of the handler’s physical and mental health conditions, living situation, and lifestyle.
  • Selection of a suitable dog: The next step is to select a suitable dog to be trained as a Psychiatric Service Dog. This may involve either purchasing a puppy or adopting an adult dog from a reputable breeder or rescue organization. The dog should have a stable temperament, be well-behaved, and have a strong desire to please their handler.
  • Basic obedience training: The dog must be trained in basic obedience commands, such as sit, stay, come, and heel. This training is the foundation for all other Psychiatric Service Dog training and will help the dog understand what is expected of them.
  • Task training: The specific tasks the dog will need to perform will vary depending on the handler’s needs. For example, a dog may be trained to interrupt repetitive or harmful behaviors, provide stability and balance, or alert to panic or anxiety attacks. Task training typically involves intensive and repetitive training to ensure that the dog can perform the tasks consistently and reliably in all environments.
  • Public access training: Finally, the dog must be trained to behave appropriately in public settings and to work calmly and effectively in a variety of environments. This includes training in public access manners, such as not jumping on people or begging for food.

US Service Animals Online Training’s six-module approach, which consists of twelve videos, makes virtual training simple. These modules provide step-by-step instructions for implementing cutting-edge animal behavior theories into your dog’s training.

You’ll receive individualized support from our trainer in addition to the training videos, which might be useful if you run into trouble or need more information on a training concept.

Best Psychiatric Service Dog Breeds

While you’re in the process of exploring psychiatric service dog options, it’s also worth noting that there are a few breeds that are naturally inclined to this kind of job.

While nearly any kind of dog can take on this role if they have the right skills and temperament, below are some of the breeds that are well-designed for psychiatric service.

Standard Poodle

The almighty standard poodle is known for its teddy bear appearance and large height. But these animals also make fantastic psychiatric service dogs because of their affectionate disposition and high level of intelligence.

Originally trained to retrieve waterfowl, the supreme cleverness of standard poodles and their ability to respond to cues make them easy to train as service dogs.

Standard poodles also have good natures and fun-loving personalities, so they are well-suited for handlers with emotional difficulties. They are famed for their loyalty and sensitivity and are known for being stable companions who can easily attune to their handler’s state of mind.

Standard poodles also benefit from non-shedding hypoallergenic coats, making them ideal for individuals with allergies.

Labrador Retriever

Labs are one of the most common dogs around, and it’s easy to see why they make fantastic psychiatric service animals. Their high intelligence and gentle disposition mean they are easy to train, and, like poodles, their ability to retrieve makes them adept at responding to commands.

Labs can also adapt well to any environment and are famed for their obedience and their friendly, calm natures. They are also known to display an eagerness to please their owners, which is a valued trait in the world of service dogs.

As loyal companions with well-balanced personalities, Labrador Retrievers work well with people who need physical and emotional assistance. Labs are especially suited to adults or children with autism as they are great for creating calm stability in any surroundings.


On the smaller side of the dog world, Havanese are famed for their affectionate dispositions and highly trainable personalities. These animals’ outgoing and loving nature makes them especially great service dogs for individuals with depression.

Like other pooches on this list, Havanese can tune into their handler’s moods and provide a much-needed boost if they’re feeling low.

Havanese are also easily trained and are adept at learning commands to retrieve objects or interrupt repetitive or harmful actions. These highly adaptable dogs are therefore great for individuals who have fluctuating moods or behaviors.

Their thick, long fur and smaller size also means they make fantastic lap dogs. They love to play and can also serve as a focal point for handlers who get anxious and need a safe distraction.

Miniature Schnauzer

Schnauzers are small, non-threatening, and are best known for being balls of fun. These small dogs are cheerful, fun-loving, and eager to be part of any family. They have spirited dispositions and are known for being an uplifting companion. This makes them ideal for people with conditions like depression or PTSD.

Schnauzers are also highly responsive to training and learning commands, which means they’re ideal for handlers without much experience with dogs. As these dogs also require a lot of exercise, they would suit handlers who want to increase their levels of recreation and activity as part of their therapy.

Cavalier King Charles Spaniel

Cavaliers are known for their silky coats of fur and sweet personalities. They love cuddling and snuggling, and they tend to bond strongly with their owner. It is, therefore, no surprise that these dogs make ideal psychiatric service dogs.

Cavaliers are also highly intelligent and easy to train. Not only can they learn to become attuned to their handler’s state of mind, but they are also good at being calm in public places.

The affectionate nature of these dogs makes them ideal lap dogs and makes them a great fit for housebound individuals. Their calming natures are also suited to handlers with PTSD or depression.

German Shepherd

German Shepherds are perhaps the most well-known of all service dogs. While they are most famed for working as police dogs, German Shepherds also make fantastic PSDs.

These animals are incredibly clever, well-disciplined, and eager to please their owners. They are also loving, loyal, and calm, making them great service dogs for people with OCD or anxiety.

Due to their human-like intelligence and ability to quickly learn commands, German Shepherds are skilled at interrupting damaging or repetitive behaviors. They can also be trained to detect anxiety flare-ups and calm the owner down by pawing at them or by applying deep pressure therapy.

Final Thoughts on Psychiatric Service Dogs

Psychiatric service dogs are invaluable to individuals struggling with mental or emotional issues. They can perform complex tasks to help their handlers deal with everyday life and provide calmness, support, and protection.

In essence, these dogs offer hope and comfort for people who need assistance with their mental health conditions.

However, getting a service dog requires a big commitment. Before taking the leap, it is worth discussing the matter with your doctor first to determine whether a PSD is a suitable treatment option for your condition.

It’s also worth reviewing the criteria that need to be met to qualify for a psychiatric service dog and whether you are financially prepared for it. Good luck!